How to drain a plot — step by step instructions for creating different types of systems (70 photos)
Water is one of the most important components on earth. Not a single plant can grow without water, but sometimes there is so much water that it becomes a big problem. This is faced by a huge number of owners of suburban areas. Excess moisture is not conducive to construction or agriculture.
A site located in a lowland or soil containing a large amount of clay is, of course, a “headache”. But still, such problems are completely solvable, it is necessary to drain the area from water.
Brief content of the article:
Drainage is a whole complex of measures designed to produce an outflow of excess moisture from the soil. Before you start creating a drainage system, you should pay attention to:
- The amount of groundwater.
- Presence of precipitation.
- Communication planning.
- The presence and location of underground structures.
- Soil structure.
- Possibility of planting trees and shrubs.
Stagnant water creates a strong threat to buildings located on such soil. It remains to choose the most suitable version of the system.
You can drain the soil using a deep or surface drainage device. The tasks for both options are similar — removing excess moisture, but the principles of their laying and their work are different.
So, surface drainage produces an outflow of water from the upper layers of the soil, which accumulate after precipitation.
For drainage of the upper layers of the soil, a linear or point design is suitable. Water collectors are placed in the place where the least amount of moisture. Suitable for this:
- Various gauges of natural origin.
- The space at the front door.
- Place at the bottom edge of the veranda.
- Area at the entrance gate.
The point system is very simple. When creating it, you do not need to create an exact plan. To create a structure, it is necessary to prepare water inlets, drainage systems, storm gates and water settlers.
To preserve fertile soil in a plot with a slope of 3 or more degrees, it is necessary to create a storm system. It will also be useful for:
- Washing paths with water.
- Drainage of space near the entrance to the garage.
- If there are prolonged rains and you need to remove a lot of moisture from the foundations of buildings.
The system of drains deepened into the soil is called linear drainage. From above, the gutters are covered with removable metal gratings.
With this method of draining the site with your own hands, the main condition is the correct location of the grooves. The gutters are laid making a slight slope so that the water flows move independently.
Moving along the groove, wet masses enter the filter. With the help of a filter, the masses are cleaned, and from it water enters the storm system through the drainage system.
The construction of a linear drainage is troublesome and requires preliminary planning. The laying of a concrete base is mandatory for all parts of this system. If the catchment area is large, then it is necessary to pour the foundations with concrete using a slope.
To enhance the operation of the drainage system, you can create a combination of various designs. With this placement, even large volumes of water will not cause significant damage to either buildings or vegetation.
To remove excess moisture from the site, underground drain paths are also used. To collect them, you need to install a well.
According to the principle of collecting groundwater, systems are:
- in a horizontal position.
Vertical position systems are produced according to the principle of ribbed wells. Wet layers are their location. A filter and a pumping apparatus are placed inside the well.
Therefore, these structures are already engineering structures that require constant care. This is the reason why the vertical drainage system is not popular.
The simplest and most affordable is the horizontal position of the deep-type drainage system. The main elements of this system are drains. Drain is a corrugated pipe designed for laying in a pre-dug ditch. The use of corrugated PVC pipes is due to their inexpensive price and ease of installation.
Instructions on how to dry the area looks something like this:
- We draw up a laying plan, where we designate the location of the sewer well.
- Guided by the plan, we dig grooves.
- We lay sand on the bottom of the grooves and cover it with a special material. There should be enough material to cover the pipes.
- Drains are placed at a slope in the direction of the well.
- We connect the individual parts with the help of tees and crosses.
- We wrap the pipes and fall asleep with gravel, and a layer of earth on top.
Do not forget about the release from the water and the well itself. The drain from the well can be organized into the nearest ravine or into the central storm drain.
Proper care requires:
- Perform regular well inspections. If necessary, clean it.
- Once every ten years, it is necessary to carry out a major flushing to remove deposits from the pipe walls.
- Do not use heavy vehicles on drain sites.
- Systematic loosening of the soil with subsequent pressing is also one of the methods of caring for the system.
- Using a hose with high pressure, it is necessary to flush the pipes from soil, silt and debris.
Swamp on the site
In order to drain the swamp on the site, it is necessary to raise the soil level of the entire site with the creation of a drainage ditch around the entire perimeter. This method is very expensive and therefore not accessible to everyone.
Before starting the drainage of a swampy area, it is necessary to determine how deep the ditches should be made. With seasonal waterlogging of the site, we break through the channel along the lowest part. It would be appropriate to have a large number of drainage ditches.
On clay soil
On clay soil, melt water and precipitation remain on the surface for a long time without going into the soil. This is neither good for a flat area nor for a sloped area. On the site, which is under a slope, flows of water masses from the lands located above are added.
The easiest solution to this problem is to create open ditches. The closed drainage system is ineffective here.
With the help of nature
Not everyone has the opportunity to create and maintain a serious drainage system. And here plants that drain the site come to the rescue.
The lower part of the site, where the soil is most moist, is planted with moisture-loving plants. They will do an excellent job of absorbing excess moisture:
- Weeping willow and birch. These trees are ideal for planting along the edge of a plot. They take root well and immediately begin the drying process.
- A heavily moistened area is suitable for planting alder, ash, larch and maple. These trees not only effectively cope with the task of drainage, but can also decorate your site.
- The only cultivated tree for a high humidity garden is the plum.
There are plenty of ways to deal with a large amount of moisture. And everyone can find a suitable option for him. So an excessively moistened area is not a sentence!
Photo tips on how to dry the area
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Post published: 12.10
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