A fireplace stove — what is it, design, what is it for, pros and cons, how to heat it, where to install it?
The heating device stove-fireplace is considered a good choice for private construction. A modern device is characterized by high efficiency and is able to serve a large area. Most models are suitable for cooking and heating dishes, and thanks to their stylish design, they look prestigious in a home environment.
What is a fireplace stove?
An open hearth with a straight chimney looks beautiful, but it is not suitable for cooking, the power of such a device is not always enough to heat a large house. The fireplace stove is a more functional device. Thanks to the presence of a viewing glass in the door, the owners can enjoy the view of embers or flames. The chimney here is not straight, but is a system of channels for the accumulation of thermal energy. The design combines a fireplace and a two-in-one stove, can be connected to water heating, equipped with a cast-iron stove and a convenient oven.
The design of the fireplace stove
As a prototype of this heating device, one can name the famous «potbelly stove» made of iron barrels. In terms of efficiency, a modern home fireplace stove significantly exceeds its predecessors, cools down much longer, and is endowed with a lot of useful functions. This device consists of the following nodes:
- Cast iron or steel casing.
- combustion chambers.
- Ash box.
- Heat exchanger (water circuit or other type).
- Doors with viewing glass.
- Air supply systems.
- To increase the heat capacity, overall models are often covered with additional ceramic or brick cladding.
What is a fireplace stove for?
The main function of this device is space heating. A fireplace stove for giving long-term burning carries out a quick warm-up of the living space, and for a long time, even after the flame has faded, it gives off heat. Decorative trim and the presence of a transparent window in the firebox increase the value of the device. A beautifully selected stationary hearth, elegantly decorated with ceramics or forged elements, can act as a highlight of the interior.
Pros and cons of a fireplace stove
Modern long-burning hearths are far superior to primitive devices with open fireboxes. A stylishly lined fireplace stove for a country house has valuable advantages:
- Compact dimensions.
- Lots of finishes.
- Wide range of models.
- You can choose a device for any type of fuel.
- Operational safety.
- Availability of additional options (stoves, ovens).
- There are options for heat exchangers with a water circuit.
- Most fireplace stove models do not require electricity consumption.
- Due to the low weight, there is no need to equip a separate reinforced foundation for the device.
- Installation of a fireplace stove is relatively simple.
- Ease of use.
Cons of a fireplace stove:
- The device must not be left unattended for a long time.
- The efficiency of such a hearth is highly dependent on the quality of the fuel.
- For heating a large cottage with utility rooms, a fireplace stove is not always suitable in terms of power.
How to heat a fireplace stove?
The type of fuel used should be taken into account at the stage of choosing a heater. For example, connecting natural gas requires a special burner in the hearth, preparation of passport documentation and obtaining special permits. Coal and firewood are the easiest to use, but more and more cottage owners opt for granulated material or briquettes.
The long-burning stove is capable of operating on the following types of fuel:
Wood burning stove
Watching the branches burning in the firebox brings peace, reminiscent of summer holidays. A wood burning stove for a home is a classic option. After the rise in price of natural gas, many are returning to the old proven fuels. When installing such a device, special permits are not required, you only need a place to store drying logs. For the effective use of wood, several nuances should be considered:
- Only dry firewood is suitable for burning in the hearth.
- It is recommended to use logs that have been dried for up to one year.
- When harvesting, long branches need to be dissolved into segments of approximately the same size.
- The recommended log length is about 3/4 of the firebox size.
- The recommended log diameter is 6-10 cm.
- Firewood is laid in the hearth horizontally with a stacking height of up to 30 cm.
- Leave a gap between adjacent logs up to 1 cm.
A feature of such a hearth is the need to connect to electricity. The heating stove-fireplace is equipped with a fan and an ignition system, there is a control unit and automatic fuel supply. Even taking into account the relatively high cost of this device, its advantages are significant:
- The efficiency reaches 84-94%.
- Downloads are enough for 1.5-2 days.
- Safe work.
- Convenient and precise adjustment.
- The operation of the fireplace stove is automated.
- Fast payback.
It is recommended to use long-flame grades of coal (D). Cheap brown varieties have a relatively lower calorific value with a large amount of ash sediment. The combustion of this type of fuel is accompanied by the release of a huge amount of heat (more than 1000℃). A standard hearth, designed to use only dry firewood, quickly burns out in this mode. The fireplace stove for giving on coal has the following design features:
- The combustion chamber is made with thickened walls.
- The material of the working chamber for coal is heat-resistant steel or cast iron.
- Special heat-resistant cast-iron grates are used.
- There is an adjustable damper for supplying air to the furnace.
Where to install a fireplace stove?
The choice of a place for mounting a heating device is influenced by the principle of its operation and design features. Even a small stove-fireplace is considered a potential fire hazard. One of the main nuances is the observance of fire breaks — a safe distance between the heated surface and nearby objects. Recommendations for determining the location of the fireplace stove are as follows:
- For normal convection, air-heating devices require an unobstructed air flow.
- If there is a built-in heat exchanger, it is better to place the furnace circuit at the lowest point of the heating system.
- There should be no problems with the construction of the chimney.
- Furniture or adjacent interior elements should not prevent the full opening of the chamber door.
- The distance of the fire break from the hot side surface to the easily combustible object is 1.1-1.25 m.
- Fire break in the area of the opening door of the combustion chamber — from 1.25 m.
- For overall appliances with ceramic or stone cladding, a special foundation must be poured; a light weight steel stove can be installed on a heat-resistant stable base.
Types of fireplace stove
Heating appliances are classified according to several criteria — material, type of fuel, design. Taking into account the features of your interior, you can choose the optimal design in a suitable style. Consider examples of fireplace stoves by installation method:
- Corner stove-fireplace.
- Direct stove-fireplace.
Types of fireplace stoves according to the lining material:
- Steel stove-fireplace.
- Cast iron stove fireplace.
- Brick stove.
Models of fireplace stoves with additional functionality:
- Fireplace stove with water circuit.
- Fireplace stove with hob.
How to choose a fireplace stove?
Purchasing a heater is a responsible business. Neglecting serious nuances necessitates a new redevelopment and leads to financial losses. Consider the most important criteria in deciding how to choose a fireplace stove for home:
- The power of the device should be enough with a margin for heating. With a living space height of 2.5 m, at least 1 kW / 10 m² is required.
- It is desirable to have several combustion modes (economical, intensive).
- The duration of burning with one bookmark is from 5 hours.
- The presence of additional options (hob, oven, water circuit).
- For modest apartments, a corner metal stove-fireplace is better suited; overall models look great in a large kitchen or hall.
Rating of fireplace stoves
Heating appliances of a modern type are famous for the variety of the model range. It is relatively easy to choose a fireplace stove of the required power in a budget version or a product from a well-known brand with a prestigious finish. Consider several compact devices with good parameters:
- Fireplace stove Vesuvius PK-01 — a device with a power of 9 kW, bookmarks are enough for 5 hours, there is a cast-iron stove for cooking, a water heating heat exchanger, work on wood.
- Heating device Bozen Top — material steel and cast iron, power 6 kW, vertical firewood, top connection of the chimney.
- Plamen Nera fireplace stove – cylindrical shape, black enamel coating, top connection, weight 157 kg, power 10 kW.
- Fireplace stove Romotop Riano — steel case, ceramic lining, weight 155 kg, power 8 kW.
- Oven-fireplace Kratki Koza K9 — cast iron body, firebox with 3 glasses, power up to 13 kW, weight 160 kg.
Furnace in the interior
Among the main advantages of such a device, one should highlight the beautiful design and compact size, which makes it easier to choose the right hearth model for any apartment, regardless of the style of furnishings. For example, we advise you to look at successful solutions for using a modern fireplace stove in different rooms of the house:
- Cast iron stove in the kitchen.
- Furnace in retro style, lined with ceramics.
- Fireplace stove in modern style.
- Hanging stove-fireplace in the recreation area.
- Brick fireplace in the country.
Installing a fireplace stove
Installing a home is a responsible business. It is advisable to leave the installation of the fireplace stove to specialists, but a home master with the right skills is able to solve this problem on his own. Work should be performed in the following sequence:
- In the area where the fireplace stove is installed, the walls must be covered with non-combustible materials (tile, brick, stone).
- The minimum clearance from the body of the product to the walls is about 20 cm.
- With a large mass of the fireplace stove, it is necessary to strengthen the logs with additional stops.
- A wooden floor or linoleum should be protected from fire using metal, asbestos or tile as a base.
- The refractory base should protrude beyond the walls by 50 cm from the facade and 30 cm from the side.
- The chimney is recommended to be installed using a modern two-layer pipe.
- In the place of passage through the roof, it is worth using an insert made of iron or asbestos.
- Large gaps in the roof must be filled with mineral wool.
- If the distance from the ridge to the chimney is less than 1.5 m, then the pipe should be raised above the roof by 1 m.
- Be sure to attach a protective cap to the chimney.
- If there is a water circuit, connect the fireplace stove to the mains.
- Check the operation of the stove.
DIY fireplace stove
If you want to install not a factory device, but a home-made device for heating a cottage, then you need to have the skills of laying bricks and be able to work with a welding machine. Consider one of the successful examples of how to build a brick fireplace stove with your own hands:
- Be sure to make a drawing and calculate all the main dimensions.
- To control the masonry, it is better to mount a simple aluminum profile fence.
- It is advisable to use a factory door frame with a heat-resistant screen.
- Attach the frame to a special fastener to the brickwork.
- The inner part of the chamber in contact with the flame must be made of refractory fireclay bricks.
- Install a chimney with a damper.
- The chimney pipe can be hidden behind a plasterboard frame in compliance with fire breaks.
- Decorate the outer contour of the fireplace stove with facing bricks, stone or tiles,