85 photos of device features and installation
The slopes of the relief on the site make it difficult to use land, in addition, seasonal soil slippage and problems with drainage harm buildings and communications. With a skillful approach, these shortcomings will become an advantage. Terracing and the construction of retaining walls will not only solve technical problems — leveled areas will expand the possibilities of cultivating the land, but will also become the basis for creating your own Gardens of Babylon with an original landscape design.
The choice of building material for supports depends on the features of the relief and the design style. Logs and beams, concrete, hard stones, bricks and various types of building blocks can be used for retaining walls.
Brief content of the article:
Retaining structures are erected on land plots with a slope of more than 8 degrees.
At the first stage, you need to decide on the scale of changes in the relief: calculate the number of steps, and decide on building materials.
Amateurs can build walls no more than 1-1.5 meters high, the installation of retaining walls of greater height should be entrusted to a professional. Their help will also be required if the groundwater on the land plot is at a depth of less than one and a half meters. The construction of retaining structures on sandy unstable soil is also difficult.
The design of the supporting wall consists of a foundation, a vertical part and a drainage. The dimensions of the foundation depend on the weight of the wall and the quality of the soil. The harder the soil, the shallower the foundation. On loose soils, the foundation becomes virtually equal in height with the outer part of the support.
To ensure the stability of the wall, to prevent collapse and distortions, it is given a slight slope towards the embankment. In the center of the long supporting structures, special ledges are built — unloading platforms that use vertical pressure to increase the stability of the wall. To protect against water along the upper edge, you can install a cornice or a visor.
A wall made of natural stone will become a solid frame and a nice looking decoration of the site. The width of the foundation should be 2-3 times the width of the wall, the depth is approximately one third of the outer part of the support.
When calculating the depth of the trench for the retaining wall, the thickness of the sand and gravel pad is taken into account. After the bottom is filled with a cushion, concrete is poured at such a level that the first layer of masonry is half below the surface. Drainage can be done in two ways. Place the pipe at the base of the wall, or leave a few horizontal drain holes in it.
Then you can proceed to the main stage of masonry. From the bottom up, large stones are placed first, the adhesion is carried out by concrete. You can also choose the option of dry laying, in which the stones are laid out without an adhesive material. Their cracks are filled with soil, in which plants will later germinate.
Long vertical seams and cross-shaped joints between stones should be avoided. For strength, the wall can be given a slight (up to 10 degrees) slope. Additional support will be the sharp edges of the stones, deepened in the side soil.
Such structures themselves look picturesque, but additional decoration can be applied to them by placing plants in crevices, or covering the surface with decorative moss.
Retaining walls made of concrete
Depending on the area of the terrace and the characteristics of the soil, the concrete support can be from 25 cm to half a meter thick. A third of its height, the wall is buried in the ground. When erecting structures above a meter, reinforcement is used.
In addition to drainage through outlet pipes, additional sealing of the surface from the side of the slope must be undertaken, lubricating it with a special solution. After drying, the space between the concrete and the ground is filled with crushed stone and gravel.
Concrete, unpretentious in appearance, opens up wide scope for imagination. It can be lined with ceramic tiles, decorated with stone or covered with plaster. Concrete retaining walls are the perfect backdrop for hanging plant designs.
Brick walls on site
For retaining walls, durable varieties of solid bricks are used. Foundation dimensions are calculated similarly to stone structures. With a height not exceeding 60 cm, the wall thickness is half a brick — 12 cm. With a height of 60 to 1 meter — a brick thickness.
Gabions for retaining walls
Gabions are original metal containers filled with stones. They are semi-finished products for wall assembly with brackets and spirals.
Any stone can become a filler: large decorative pieces are laid out outside, the inside of the cage can be filled with rubble and gravel. The mesh, fasteners, as well as special pins for fixing to the ground are made of galvanized steel.
Wooden retaining structures
It is easy to make a retaining wall made of logs or large beams with your own hands, it looks extremely attractive, but, due to its fragility, requires periodic repairs.
The tree must be treated with waterproofing and antifungal agents. Half of the log, which will be underground, can be fired and bitumen coated, the outer decorative part is treated with special impregnations and varnishes.
For the construction of masonry, a trench breaks out of wood, the bottom of which is covered by a drainage cushion by 10 cm. Then the logs, half their height, are set inside the moat, fastened to each other with wire and nails, and covered with gravel and crushed stone for stability. You can also apply horizontal masonry.
Before you strengthen the retaining wall with concrete, you need to make drainage by placing longitudinal or transverse pipes at its base. The trench is poured with concrete at a level of 10 cm from the edges. For the side adjacent to the ground, an additional moisture-resistant layer of materials used in roofing waterproofing will be required.
The choice of tires as a building material for fences and terraces is a good use of the idea of recycling. Construction technology involves stepped masonry on piles. As you can see in the photo, a summer cottage with a retaining wall made of tires can look neat and stylish.
Retaining wall photo
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Post published: 09.10
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