95 photos and tricks in the manufacture of a cesspool
The need for the appearance of compost pits in their dachas is faced by the majority of owners of suburban areas. Compost facilities allow you to solve a variety of everyday problems: this is the disposal of organic waste, and increasing the fertility of all types of soils. The use of compost is environmentally friendly, cost-effective and efficient.
You can save energy and buy composters in specialized stores, or you can make them yourself. However, there are many pitfalls in building a compost pit with your own hands, and only a well-made compost pit will allow you to get high-quality fertilizer, while avoiding various negative consequences.
Brief content of the article:
Where to start making compost pits?
Pits should be located as far as possible from residential buildings and located on the leeward side, since organic waste has an unpleasant look and smell. The recommended distance is at least 30 m from the dwelling.
Do not place pits close to sources of drinking water. The optimal distance is 25 meters.
Consider terrain features. It is impossible to place pits on hills: together with precipitation, its contents will be carried around the site. You should not choose places on the slopes: excess water reduces the rate of fermentation. A flat piece of land is best.
Pay attention to the trees next to the pits. Alder and birch will become a good neighborhood, but it is better not to put pits next to evergreen trees.
To maintain the correct moisture content of the compost, select a site in the shade.
Keep in mind the ease of access to the pit and choose the most suitable location for you.
Many summer residents prefer not to equip compost pits and tend to use compost heaps. The point is the simplicity of working with compost: it is easier to load waste, mix and unload humus. But from an aesthetic point of view, they are unattractive, and the simplicity of working with compost can be achieved for pits, if they are properly equipped.
Compost pit as it is
Compost maturation lasts from one to two years. The processing of organics requires access to air, moisture, earthworms and soil organisms, a variety of waste types and the absence of certain of them. These conditions determine both the optimal places for the construction of compost pits, and the variety of types of structures.
The optimal size is determined by the maturation time of the compost. Half of the pit is allocated for fresh waste (not older than two years), and the second — for already matured compost.
An important factor is the temperature of the compost, which rises to about 60 C due to decay. The larger the size, the higher the temperature and the more effectively weeds and pathogens are destroyed. The correct compost pit has the following parameters: depth — about 1 m, width — 1-2 m, length — up to 3 m.
It is advisable to divide the pit into two sections: one for fresh waste, the second for mature compost. Or three: for fresh waste, for ripening compost and for finished.
The bottom of the structure should provide access to moisture and worms. Do not cover it with dense materials such as slate, metal sheets or films. Tree bark, needles, straw and branches will serve as good drainage material.
From above, the pit should be closed, but in such a way as to provide air access.
There are different designs of compost pits.
The easiest option. All that is needed is to dig a hole of suitable size, put drainage material on it, and waste on top. The structure is covered with a film, tarpaulin or grass.
If you plan to use the pit for more than one year, it is worth strengthening its walls by any improvised means — for example, slate, roofing material, plywood, etc.
The most common option. Most often they are made of wood, but other materials, such as slate, are also acceptable.
How to make such a compost pit:
- dig a hole of a given size and up to a depth of 80 cm, after which they dig in the support bars
- about 20 cm from the edges of the pit. The bars should be treated with protective impregnation;
- assemble the three walls of the box so that they have enough holes for air (with
- if necessary, drill them), and divide them into two or three compartments;
- install and align the box;
- cover the bottom with drainage material;
- screw the front wall and cover.
Wooden parts must be treated with a special impregnation, and then coated with acrylic paint in several layers. This will perform not only protective functions, but also decorative ones: the finished box will look neat and beautiful. A photo of such a compost pit will not be ashamed to even upload to the Web.
You can leave only one compartment in the box. To do this, the box is installed on an elevation so that there is about 30 cm between the ground and the lower edges. The compost will be selected from below through this hole. Fresh raw materials are laid on top.
Essentially a compost bin. Ordinary plastic boxes require some work: they do not allow air and moisture to circulate, so you will need to make ventilation holes yourself. You can buy ready-made garden composters, they are equipped with everything necessary to ensure proper maturation of the compost.
Semi submerged bunker
This design is able to last for many seasons, convenient to use and easy to maintain.
Installation of the structure is also simple:
- dig a hole about a meter deep;
- formwork is constructed along the boundaries of the pit so that the concrete walls protrude approximately 1 m above ground level;
- poured with concrete;
- after the concrete has hardened, the formwork is removed, and the bottom of the pit is poured with a concrete screed;
- when the screed hardens, if necessary, construct the inner walls (this can be done using formwork, wooden boards or other materials) and a cover from a chain-link mesh and metal frames. When mounting the roof of the bunker, ventilation holes must be left.
An important point: since the compost in the bunker does not come into contact with the soil, it requires periodic watering and planting worms in it.
We will figure out what types of waste must be used in order to obtain high-quality compost rich in macro- and microelements.
Types of waste that are the basis of good fertilizer:
- grass (including weeds cut before flowering), flowers, straw;
- food waste — peeling vegetables and fruits, berries, cereals, tea leaves, eggshells;
- foliage, needles, branches, tree bark, sawdust;
- paper (except colored and laminated), cardboard;
- manure and bird droppings.
Additives that improve the quality of compost:
- phosphorite and dolomite flour, as well as other mineral fertilizers;
- earth — it should be sprinkled with each subsequent layer of waste, this will increase the rate of fermentation.
Do not put in compost:
- weeds with set seeds, live roots of wheatgrass and horsetail;
- tops of plants affected by downy mildew and late blight, especially tomatoes and potatoes;
- plants treated with herbicides;
- bones of fruit trees;
- excrement of domestic animals;
- inorganic waste:
- protein waste (they exude a strong unpleasant odor when rotting and attract animals).
There are a few simple rules, following which will help you get high-quality compost more quickly:
- stir the contents from time to time;
- maintain moisture levels by watering the compost pile as needed;
- dry waste should alternate with fresh, solid — with soft, brown — with green;
- do not pack the layers too tightly;
- the optimal ratio of dry material to wet is 5 to 1;
- sometimes add worms and add decay accelerators. Accelerators are sold in specialized stores in the form of concentrates;
- water-infused cow dung and certain plant species (such as dandelion, valerian, yarrow, and chamomile) also speed up fermentation.
By following these recommendations, you can get an environmentally friendly and nutrient-rich fertilizer, the quality of which you can be sure of 100%.
How to make a compost pit
The type of flower bed is an irregular flower bed. It differs significantly from its predecessor. Firstly, it is its durability, due to the fact that it is formed from different plants. They bloom sequentially, replacing each other, and you can enjoy such beauty during the entire flowering period. Stages of flowering plants are replaced in waves. In addition to flowering plants, it is worth using evergreen flowers, this will help the flower bed stay green all the time.
Photo of a compost pit
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Post published: 02.11
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