Borehole well and well wintering


An intermediate stage in the creation of an autonomous water supply for the site is the arrangement of a well (caisson) around the drilled well. Immediately after this, water is supplied to the points of consumption.


Firstly, a closed well shaft is the absence of the noise of a running pump and a reliable place to store water supply equipment if your home does not have a basement.

Secondly, maintenance of devices is best done in a room closed from precipitation.

Thirdly, you need to take care of protecting the conduit from breaking when water freezes. Without insulation and heating, the only protection against frost will be the earth at a depth below the freezing level.

Installation of a caisson is not a prerequisite. When you can do without it, read the last section of the article.


From the point of view of ergonomics (the science of convenience), the minimum internal size of the utility room is 90 cm x 120 cm with a height of 190 cm. In such a space, you can perform certain movements with your hands, bend over. This is enough to connect / disconnect the pump or to put together a storage tank, pump and automation.

However, this may not be enough if the storage tank is large. Then, in the design of the well, this parameter is taken into account and the length of one of the walls is increased.
You should measure the depth of freezing of the well water in your area: in severe frost, it is enough to determine to what extent the walls of the well shaft have frosted over (if you don’t have it, then look at your neighbors). The bottom of the borehole should be below this indicator by almost a meter. If it is deep (more than 2 m), then the upper floor of the mine should be insulated (sometimes a layer of earth is enough).

IMPORTANT: when designing a well for a well with an external pump, it is positioned so that the well pipe is in one of the corners remote from the entrance, but at a distance not closer than 30 cm from the walls.


For an external pump, the rectangular shape of the borehole will be most suitable.

For a submersible well pump, a round or square shape may be optimal, since there is a minimum set of “components” inside.

Concrete — an excellent option for a well in conditions of a high level (less than 2.5 m) of standing sedimentary water. If you cast a capsule from it with a bottom and walls, then it will always be dry inside. I must say that pumping equipment and pipes are designed for short-term operation in water, but it is extremely uncomfortable to perform maintenance in a flooding situation.

On the other hand, concrete is a monolithic capital structure with an almost unlimited service life. Therefore, it is worth building a well from it only for wells designed for a very long time (artesian wells).

Brick — a good material for relatively «dry» soils. To lay the masonry out of it, you need to work hard, but there are no serious requirements for the «ideal» performance for a borehole well. The service life corresponds to the life of sand wells.

Ready caisson is a quick solution to all your problems for a certain amount of money. Will last depending on the material from 20 to 50 years.

concrete rings – mobile alternative to monolithic concrete. An excellent solution for sand wells in high humidity conditions. Below is a “tablet with a hole” or a concrete pad, two rows of rings, on top again a “tablet with a hole”. The main thing is how to seal the joints.

Tires for heavy vehicles use when the soil around is dry or the well equipment is in it seasonally. They are cut as close to the rim as possible and stacked on top of each other.

wooden beam from larch, acacia, mulberry or oak can be used in places with low standing groundwater.

Stone masonry It makes sense to use if it is financially beneficial to you.

Other masonry material for operation in conditions of immersion in the ground is suitable only if it has a density of at least M800. Otherwise, it will always be damp inside. For equipment, this is not a problem, but the strength of the walls can be affected.


No matter how you prepare your well for winter, but if the water conduit is, for example, at a depth of 1.2 m, and the freezing level of the well shaft is about 2 m, then, accordingly, a section 0.8-0.9 m long remains unprotected. To protect the pipe from freezing in this place, it is necessary that the water in it either moves under pressure, or is completely absent.

Another problem: a crane is attached to the well that goes “outside”, but simply an uninsulated section of the water conduit, there is a 100% risk of freezing.

To prevent freezing of the pipe going from the pump to the outdoor faucet, it is necessary to get rid of the presence of water in this area. If you do not plan to use it in winter, then in the fall you can manually drain the water from it and install an additional shut-off valve in the borehole.

However, there is another solution to this situation. These are mechanical and automatic drain valves.

This device itself drains water from the system. The differences between them are not only in principle of operation, but also in operating conditions.

Mechanical the drain valve (winter valve) looks like this:

The principle of operation is simple: a drain valve installed below the freezing level is attached to the pressure pipe using a saddle.

A long shaft goes up from it, ending with a valve.

An additional hole should be provided for the valve in the borehole head.

You can drain the water above the valve with one turn of the valve.

Recommend for wells without a caisson (well) with a deep pump.

pros: not sensitive to fine litter (grains of sand).

Minuses: you give the command to drain, which means there will always be a «human factor».

Auto the drain valve is much easier to install. His like a mechanical one, they are installed directly in a polyethylene pressure pipe in a place where there is no possibility of winter freezing: as close as possible to the pump or immediately behind the adapter (read on for what it is).

The principle of operation of the automatic drain is as follows: a strong pressure holds a brass ball that closes the drain hole, as soon as the pressure drops, the spring squeezes the ball and water flows freely through the hole.

Recommended for water supply from a well with a caisson, indispensable for water supply to a house from a well with any pump.


  • it works without your participation, as soon as the pressure in the pipe drops to 0.5 bar;
  • very easy to install;
  • has a small size.


  • the ingress of grains of sand can cause water to drip out of the valve, if this problem is found, flushing with water will be required;
  • ignoring the above situation may lead to clogging of the drain hole and improper operation of the valve.

It is not always necessary or possible to equip a caisson around the well.

For example, a garden well for irrigation. Well, what’s the point of building a capital structure around it, taking useful 2 m2 fertile land. And the life of sand wells depends on their depth, intensity of operation and the number of neighboring wells. Under favorable conditions, they work for about 20 years.

Then, garden wells operate seasonally and are often designed to lift water with an inexpensive and low-power pump of the «Kid» type. It is easy to connect and weighs so little that it is not so troublesome to take it out into the garden and connect it every one or two days.

Another option: a well for water supply at home with a deep pump, you do not have the opportunity or desire to make a caisson, because the house is seasonal.

Here, at a depth below the freezing of the soil, a tie-in is made into the casing pipe and connected to the pressure pipe using an adapter.

A downhole adapter is a special device for bringing water pipes through the well casing, which allows it to be done below the freezing depth of the soil and ensures the tightness of the connections of both water pipes and casing pipes of the well.

In order to preserve the well for the winter or a period of long absence, a winter valve is connected to the structure.

This is a mechanical drain: the valve is turned, the water above it leaves through the drain hole.

What else to read on the site:

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