How to plant a tree
Before digging a hole for a seedling, a few more problems arise:
- what tree and where should be planted,
- how far apart
- and how to make sure that labor is not in vain and the tree takes root.
Trees are different: tall and low, sprawling and columnar. And it is clear that each of them has its own root system, which goes not only deep, but also grows to the sides. Therefore, when planting trees, both of these points should be taken into account, so to speak, both tops and roots.
- undersized (up to 3 m, mainly shrubs and dwarf trees) — no closer than 1 m from the border,
- medium-sized (up to 10 m, the vast majority of fruit trees) — no closer than 2 m from the border,
- tall — no closer than 3 m from the border.
In this case, the length of the cast shadow and the branching of the root system are taken into account.
4 m retreat from the power line during landing.
From structures with a foundation, as well as a cellar and a pool, it is advisable to remove trees at a distance of 3-5 m. And not because of the roots — they simply cannot break through concrete or brick. These 3-5 meters are needed for the stability of the tree itself, especially if it is tall and has a spreading crown.
But trees are removed from underground utilities precisely because of the roots. The optimal distance is 2 m.
A few words about landscape elements. The roots not only grow down and to the sides, but also stick out from the outside above the surface of the earth. This will take a lot of years, but if there are structures with a long service life nearby (retaining walls, concrete or paved paths), then 1-1.5 m should also be retreated from them.
And here they already take into account the diameter of the crown, height and the task. Let’s try to figure it out…
Willow, birch, pine, spruce, red maple, Canadian oak, weeping forms of other species are planted precisely for the sake of obtaining beautiful contours. It is better for such trees to grow alone in the form of a solitary planting.
Columnar and pyramidal trees are often planted in a row, as a windbreak or hedge. In the first case, the distance between the trunks is left equal to the diameter of the crown. In the second — so that the branches close, that is, a third less (and even thicker).
If you are planning to make a mixed planting, then you should definitely take into account the height of trees and shrubs in the future. This means that it makes no sense to remove trees and shrubs from each other if their crowns will eventually be at different heights and will not interfere with each other. A distance of 1-1.5-2 m is quite sufficient here.
In this case, the landing is carried out almost simultaneously (with a difference of no more than five years).
But planting a young tree under an adult is not advisable, because the risk of death of the first is high. A developed root system will take away nutrients and moisture from a young one. The shrub, with its small root system, may well take root under the canopy of an adult.
Fruit trees will feel best at a distance of 5-6 meters, and undersized varieties are removed from each other by 3-4 meters. The crowns of fruit species, of course, have a larger scope, but the value of fruit species lies in fruiting. And for this, the skeleton of the tree is formed by pruning, preventing it from growing in breadth and too high. So it makes no sense to remove trees at a greater distance.
Young trees with an open root system can be bought in the period before or at the beginning of sap flow, when the buds have not yet opened. In our climatic zone, this period ends in the first half of May.
Remember that the first two weeks of transplanted trees need intensive watering, and after all summer, you should make sure that the soil under them does not dry out too much. All in all, a bit of a hassle.
In autumn, transplantation is carried out in the last stage of leaf fall. Flowering shrubs can be transplanted as early as August.
In general, autumn transplantation is most optimal for trees, since the survival rate of seedlings will be high. In a dormant state, they adapt well to a new place, tolerate winter well and are ready for new growth in spring. By the way, watering in this case is minimized.
For most conifers, a spring transplant is more favorable and always with an earthen clod. Regular watering is indispensable here.
Young trees with a closed root system can be transplanted during the entire warm period, however, remember to water in the hot summer.
Buying seedlings with an open root system from random sellers is risky. After all, it is not known when the planting material would be dug up and under what conditions it was stored. It is better to find a nursery nearby, spend money on the road and buy trees there.
For transportation, the root system is immersed in wet sawdust, soil, or wrapped in a wet cloth and polyethylene.
A seedling in a container is not yet a guarantee of quality. There are two risks here.
First — you can purchase a newly dug seedling, moved to a pot. In early spring, this is not too risky, but in summer such planting material will not take root. If you find shortened roots, be sure to tear off the foliage from the tree, transplant it to a shady place, spill it with Kornevin and monitor the soil moisture. If it survives, then transplanting to a permanent place is best done next spring.
The second risk is to acquire an overgrowth with tangled roots. In this case, you will need to dig a seedling until autumn in a slightly shaded place and monitor the soil moisture. In the autumn they dig out, immerse a lump in a bucket of water. The roots are carefully unraveled, shortened (no more than 2/3) and the seedling is planted in a permanent place, be sure to spill it with a root formation stimulator. This type of resuscitation is not suitable for conifers, why — read on.
In order to avoid these risks when buying, do not hesitate to inspect the container (the roots should not stick out of the holes), pull the planting material out of the box during inspection. Do this by holding your hand at the base of the trunk.
If the lump is taken out easily, and the roots do not look like a continuous ball of threads wrapped around the lump in a circle, then the planting material is of high quality and can be transplanted at any time.
If a lump has crumbled or the seller is categorically against it, and it is already June, then it is better to refuse the purchase. Most likely, the seedling was transplanted into a container before sale and its root system was shortened.
First of all, from the landing site, you should remove the sod according to the size of the root circle (square, as you like).
The next step: dig a hole in the center, larger than the roots of the seedling. The earth is taken out with a shovel or a garden drill, while it is better to put it on a pre-prepared film.
In order for subsequent watering to be of better quality, the soil (if it is not sandy) must be made permeable. To do this, sand is added to it, then fertilizer — peat or compost (each type of tree has its own requirements) and a scoop of wood ash. Everything is mixed.
The open root system of seedlings is recommended to be pre-immersed in a bucket of water for 6-8 hours.
The seedling is placed in a hole, the roots are straightened or the shelter is removed from the earthen clod, having previously spilled it with water.
Pour a bucket of water into the hole and wait for it to soak. The earth around the hole will be moistened and, with subsequent watering, will not draw water from under the roots.
They say that if you put large stones under the roots of fruit trees, they will generously bear fruit every year. This tradition has developed in the Siberian regions and is associated with late spring frosts. Cold stones do not allow the trees to bloom early and thus save the future harvest.
Planting conifers seedlings is somewhat different from deciduous.
Young individuals tolerate transplantation best of all, so you should not look for larger plants in nurseries. The fact is that the root system of all conifers is very vulnerable; in nurseries they are grown in containers, periodically transplanted into larger pots. Gradually, the roots can grow together into a tight ball, which is difficult to spread during transplantation without damaging it. Such a tree will not live long — the coarsened roots will increase, pinch each other and block the flow of water and trace elements from the soil.
When transplanting a young individual, the roots are relatively short and can be carefully untangled before planting. Why is an earthen ball placed in a bucket of rainwater and the roots are carefully straightened there. Disembarkation is made immediately after this. Pine, for example, will not be able to live without soil for more than 15 minutes.
High-moor peat (for acidification) and ash must be added to the soil mixture.
Given the delicate structure of young roots, coniferous plants do not dig in and trample, but sprinkle with earth, compacting it with watering. Deepening of the root collar is unacceptable.
A thick layer of mulch is laid on top. The transplanted individual is fed only with a root formation stimulator, and fertilizers for conifers can be applied to the soil no earlier than a month later.
How shrubs are planted to create a green fence, read the article about living fence.
If you dug a root circle in the sod, then it makes no sense to make an earthen rampart to retain water around the trunk. The earth will still slightly sag and form an additional depth.
Even if you recently planted a tree, you need to make a near-trunk circle. The reason is simple: it is necessary to create protection against drying out of the soil around the tree.
There are two ways, the first is to mulch the area with wood chips, chopped bark, straw. The mulch layer should be about 8 cm.
The second option is to plant a fragrant violet on this site. Its round leaves will create shade and coolness. Given the frequency of watering, such a neighborhood will be useful for both seedlings and flowers. This option is more suitable for autumn planting.
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