Fast growing trees and shrubs
The issue of planting fast-growing trees and shrubs is relevant not only for summer cottages, but also for any site. As a rule, the land allotment is issued to the future owner in a completely «naked» form.
A happy exception is the forest zone.
I must say that the range here is quite large and you will surely find the option that suits you from the list below.
Do not believe if you are promised that you will grow a garden in a couple of seasons. It will take a year to adjust. Even with an increase of half a meter, it will take 5-6 years to reach a height of 2.5-3 m. As a result, you will get a beautiful picture and a more or less decent shadow in 6-7 years. So be patient…
But before that, let me give you a recommendation.
Someone advises to start gardening with fast-growing species, this is true. However, should we forget about others, because, if they develop more slowly, then it is not worth delaying their landing.
Fast-growing individuals will allow you to save on ornamental horticultural crops, which are more expensive.
Not due to the rejection of the latter, but due to the fact that you will have the opportunity not to rush and buy not three-year-old seedlings of slow-growing breeds, but material for growing. As a rule, such seedlings are several times cheaper.
The savings effect will be especially noticeable if you conceived a landscape with many instances (several tens or even hundreds).
I recommend growing planting material in a separate place, protected from the scorching sun, but not in the dense shade of the fence. For the winter, young animals must be covered.
Grown specimens after a year or two are transplanted to a permanent habitat.
Choose a sunny place for the willow seedling, otherwise its crown will not be lush. In the first few weeks after transplanting, the tree needs attention.
The soil should not dry out, so during the dry period, 20 to 50 liters of water are poured under the roots (once a week). White willow is a medicinal plant and a good honey plant.
A great lover of the sun, at the same time, paulownia itself already at a young age gives a fairly dense shade. All thanks to the simply gigantic size of the leaves. And how beautiful this tree is during the flowering period!
In the above photo you see a tree aged 7 years. The thickness of the trunk is about 20 cm in diameter. The growth rates are simply impressive!
But be careful if you put paulownia in your garden. In addition to the sun, she loves moisture very much and watering for her requires not superficial, but deep basal. Otherwise, the root system will not go into the thickness of the earth, but will spread throughout the neighborhood, causing you a lot of trouble.
And if you take up the formation of the skeleton, then you can grow quite exotic specimens in the spirit of a Japanese garden.
He loves the sun and space. Only in this way will the crown grow uniform in density.
Birch loves moisture so much that it “drinks” up to 20 buckets of water from the soil per day. Therefore, the soil under it is always slightly dried — be careful and choose drought-resistant neighbors for it. She, like paulownia, develops a superficial root net, which will not give life to other plants within a radius of 5-6 m.
So it is better to plant birch in «wet» places for the purpose of drainage. And be prepared for the fact that every spring the territory within a radius of 10 m will be completely strewn with catkins.
WHITE ACACIA (she is a robinia, false acacia).
Yes, yes, what we call acacia, from the point of view of botany, is not it. But this does not diminish its merits. And they are as follows: rapid growth (annual growth in the first 10 years is 1-1.2 m), stunning aroma of flowers, honey plant properties, medicinal abilities.
True, the branches of the white acacia are thorny, but they cause inconvenience only when fallen down. And one more small minus: a relatively short lifespan — up to 50 years.
It does not require anything in return, it is a honey plant, it strengthens the slopes with its root system, it is used as an impenetrable hedge. And at the same time perfectly tolerates pruning.
Abundant flowering should be expected only in the sixth year of the life of this shrub. Moreover, the farther north the latitude, the smaller the inflorescences of yellow acacia.
In the year of planting, only two or three more developed shoots are left on the seedling. And after pruning form a highly branched bush. The following fact speaks eloquently about the growth rate: in three years from a sprout to a bush 2 m high. By the way, elderberry is an excellent material for creating hedge in a short time.
On my site, I planted a number of bushes and immediately cut them to a height of 15 cm. But by August, the height of the green wall reached 80 cm.
For the winter, green branches are cut by a third so that they do not freeze, but with the beginning of the season they quickly start growing. At first, the seedling should be supported with fertilizers. After that, he himself will begin to enrich the soil with nitrogen.
VIRGIN ORDINARY at the age of five, it is a bush 2 m high with the same crown width. By the age of ten, it will have exactly doubled. A beautiful lush bush can be obtained by planting three seedlings in one hole.
An entire book can be written about the medicinal properties of viburnum.
MAPLE SILVER as if shimmering with every breath of wind. This is due to the fact that the leaves are two-colored: the lower part is distinguished by a silvery color.
It goes well with other plants, the main thing is that they do not shade it, otherwise the crown will develop rare and strongly elongated upwards. In ten years, it grows from a sprout into a tree with a height of 5 m and a crown span of 4 m.
LARCH (European, Siberian). This is the only deciduous conifer.
At a young age, the larch crown is conical, dense. As it grows, it stretches and becomes loose, the trunk becomes bare.
It is recommended to plant larch in small-group plantings in the company of other coniferous trees and tall shrubs.
It must be admitted that the term «fast-growing» in relation to larch is rather arbitrary. After all, the peak of rapid growth occurs at a young age (up to 5-10 years). And it is better to transplant larch in “infancy” (1-2 years), otherwise it may not take root. Well, during this period, all forces are spent on the development of the root system. So the first few years after transplantation, you should not expect a miracle of growth.
In garden centers, you can also buy an adult tree, which is transplanted using special equipment (for appropriate remuneration).
PINE (ordinary and Weymouth). All of the above about the characteristics of growth is also true in relation to pine.
To «adjust» the time a little, you can buy an older plant grown in a pot. But keep in mind that in this case, one season will be spent on adaptation (sometimes painful) to new conditions. And the increase will be minimal. Everything will be fixed as soon as the tree gets stronger.
By the way, when replanting a pine, know what to do with an earthen clod. Firstly, it will be easier to acclimatize in a new place. Secondly, pine roots can do without land for no more than 15 minutes.
Pine, unlike larch, can be formed by pinching the apical buds of lateral branches. They do this in order to obtain a denser and more branched crown.
An adult pine, although it changes from a conical shape to a sprawling one, retains its attractiveness if tall trees do not grow nearby. Leave her (crown) for free growth area with a radius of 3-4 meters. And in general, the pine loves the sun and «water procedures» in the form of sprinkling.
Three-year-old pines 50 cm high were planted on my site in one year. So the next year, those that were in the sun gave an increase of 30 cm, fluffed up and got stronger, and semi-shaded ones grew no more than 10 cm. But everything was fixed the next year : strong trunks and growth of 50 cm.
Planting year 2013, now 2020, the growth of pines is 2.5-3.5 m. This is so that you understand the growth picture.
Norway spruce, unlike pine, is more favorable to a change of habitat. You can do this even in adulthood.
For the first 10 years, the Christmas tree will have a beautiful conical shape. You can make it fluffy by the same pinching.
As it grows older, the trunk below will become bare, heavy branches will descend, cover with elongated cones, the crown will literally “fly up” with an arrow upwards, exposing the area under it.
Therefore, it will not be superfluous to plant a company suitable for it from shorter conifers around the spruce.
FROM plants of the lower tier perfectly coexist with this tree. This does not mean that the top of an adult tree will be rare — it is quite spreading, but the shape of the leaves is sparse and translucent.
Ash grows quickly, has such a feature as quickly spreading by self-seeding.
Here he keeps company ELM (another name for elm), which has the same properties.
So if these trees are brought in, then periodically track it for self-seeding in places that are undesirable for this. In my area, these illegal immigrants reached a height of 4-5 m in seven years.
SUMACaka vinegar tree. His appearance is exotic: it can grow as a single-trunk tree, or it can develop as a multi-stem, more like a shrub.
Not very durable, but quite convenient tree, especially at the stage of development of the site. You will fully appreciate all the benefits of it on a hot summer afternoon. Although the skeleton of the plant is slightly branched, the long (up to 60 cm) leaves form a hipped crown, giving a cool shade.
As for the annual growth, it depends on the size of the root system. But even in the first stages of growth, sumac develops from 40 cm per year. The further south, the higher it grows, the further north, the greater the increase in width. In severe frost, young trunks can freeze, because the tree gives abundant root shoots and develops like a bush.
OAK RED (aka northern oak, canadian). Indeed, it has a good (albeit not a record) annual growth of 40-50 cm. But this figure is typical for older individuals.
In order for you to have a more accurate idea, by the age of 10 the tree reaches a height of 6 m with a crown diameter of 4 m.
IMPORTANT: transplanting seedlings is a very painful procedure for plants, especially if they were dug out in an area with alien soil.
That is why it is so important to help them adapt to the new conditions. To do this, compost is generously added to the planting hole (large enough), and the roots are shed during planting with a solution of a preparation such as Kornevin. Then the survival rate of planting material will be as high as possible (almost 100% if the roots were not badly damaged).
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